Ədəbiyyat - 6: paraqraflar, testlər və cavablarla tam hazırlıq
6 Edebiyyat: What is it and why is it important?
Edebiyyat is a word that may sound unfamiliar to many people, especially those who are not familiar with Azerbaijani culture and language. However, edebiyyat is a rich and diverse field of artistic expression that deserves our attention and appreciation. In this article, we will explore what edebiyyat is, how it developed over time, what are its main genres and forms, what are its common themes and topics, and what are its benefits and challenges. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of edebiyyat and hopefully a greater interest in exploring and enjoying it more.
So, what is edebiyyat? The word edebiyyat comes from the Arabic word adab, which means manners, culture, or literature. Edebiyyat can be translated as literature, but it also has a broader meaning that encompasses all forms of artistic expression that use language as a medium. Edebiyyat includes poetry, prose, drama, folklore, criticism, journalism, translation, and more. Edebiyyat is not only a product of imagination and creativity, but also a reflection of reality and a tool for communication and education.
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How is edebiyyat different from literature? Literature is a term that usually refers to written works that have artistic or intellectual value. Literature can be divided into various genres, such as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama, etc. Literature can also be classified by language, region, period, style, theme, etc. Literature is often considered as a universal human activity that transcends time and space. However, literature is also influenced by the specific cultural and historical context in which it is produced and consumed.
Edebiyyat is similar to literature in many ways, but it also has some distinctive features and characteristics that make it unique. Edebiyyat is closely related to the Azerbaijani culture and identity. Edebiyyat reflects the history, traditions, values, beliefs, aspirations, struggles, achievements, and challenges of the Azerbaijani people. Edebiyyat also contributes to the development and preservation of the Azerbaijani language. Edebiyyat is not only a source of aesthetic pleasure and intellectual stimulation, but also a means of social change and national pride.
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The history and development of edebiyyat
When and where did edebiyyat originate? Edebiyyat originated in the 14th and 15th centuries, when the Azerbaijani people were under the rule of two Turkic tribal confederations, the Qara Qoyunlu and the Aq Qoyunlu. The first examples of edebiyyat were written in Perso-Arabic script and influenced by Anatolian Turkish, Persian, and Arabic literature. Some of the prominent poets of this period were Haqiqi, Habibi, Gazi Burhanaddin, and Imadaddin Nesimi. Nesimi is considered one of the most influential early Divan masters in Turkic literary history and a pioneer of the Hurufi movement, which combined mysticism and humanism.
Edebiyyat flourished in the 16th century with the development of Ashik poetry, a poetic genre of Azerbaijani bards who sang and played the saz, a stringed instrument. Ashik poetry was oral, improvisational, and often satirical or political. Some of the famous Ashiks were Ashik Pasha, Ashik Garib, Ashik Shirin, and Ashik Veysel. Ashik poetry was not only in Azerbaijani, but also in Arabic and Persian, as well as other Turkic languages. Ashik poetry reached its peak in the 17th century with the works of Muhammad Fuzuli, who is known as the "Poet of the Heart" in Western oriental studies. Fuzuli wrote in Azerbaijani, Persian, and Arabic and combined classical and folk elements in his poetry. He is best known for his epic poem Leyli and Majnun, based on a pre-Islamic Arab legend of star-crossed lovers.
The genres and forms of edebiyyat
Edebiyyat has a variety of genres and forms that reflect its diversity and richness. Some of the main genres and forms are:
Poetry: Poetry is the most dominant and popular genre of edebiyyat. Poetry can be divided into two main types: classical and folk. Classical poetry follows strict rules of rhyme, meter, and form, such as ghazal, qasida, rubai, masnavi, etc. Classical poetry is often lyrical, mystical, or philosophical. Folk poetry is more free and flexible in its form and style, such as ashik poetry, bayati, tajnis, etc. Folk poetry is often narrative, humorous, or critical.
Prose: Prose is a relatively newer genre of edebiyyat that emerged in the 19th century with the influence of Russian literature. Prose can be divided into two main types: fiction and non-fiction. Fiction includes novels, short stories, fairy tales, etc. Fiction often deals with realistic or imaginary themes such as love, war, social issues, etc. Non-fiction includes essays, memoirs, biographies, travelogues, etc. Non-fiction often deals with factual or informative themes such as history, culture, politics, etc.
Drama: Drama is another relatively newer genre of edebiyyat that emerged in the 19th century with the influence of European theatre. Drama can be divided into two main types: comedy and tragedy. Comedy includes plays that are humorous or satirical and aim to entertain or criticize. Tragedy includes plays that are serious or tragic and aim to evoke pity or fear. Drama often deals with moral or social dilemmas faced by the characters.
Folklore: Folklore is a genre of edebiyyat that consists of oral traditions and legends that have been passed down from generation to generation. Folklore can be divided into two main types: epic and lyric. Epic includes long narratives that tell the heroic deeds or adventures of legendary figures or historical events. Lyric includes short songs or poems that express emotions or feelings.
Criticism: Criticism is a genre of edebiyyat that consists of analytical or evaluative writings about other works of edebiyyat or art. Criticism can be divided into two main types: literary criticism and art criticism. Literary criticism includes writings that examine the form, style, content, meaning, or value of literary works. Art criticism includes writings that examine the form, style, content, meaning, or value of artistic works.
Journalism: Journalism is a genre of edebiyyat that consists of factual or objective writings about current events or issues. Journalism can be divided into two main types: news journalism and feature journalism. News journalism includes writings that report on what happened, when it happened, where it happened, who was involved, and why it matters. Feature journalism includes writings that explore the background, context, or implications of a news story or issue.
Translation: Translation is a genre of edebiyyat that consists of rendering the meaning and style of a work of edebiyyat or art from one language into another. Translation can be divided into two main types: literal translation and free translation. Literal translation includes translations that adhere to the original words, syntax, and structure as much as possible. Free translation includes translations that adapt the original words, syntax, and structure to suit the target language and culture.
The themes and topics of edebiyyat
Edebiyyat has a wide range of themes and topics that reflect its diversity and richness. Some of the common themes and topics are:
Love: Love is one of the most universal and timeless themes of edebiyyat. Love can be expressed in various ways, such as romantic love, platonic love, familial love, spiritual love, etc. Love can also be experienced in various ways, such as joy, sorrow, passion, jealousy, loyalty, betrayal, etc. Love can inspire or challenge the characters and the readers.
War: War is another common theme of edebiyyat. War can be depicted in various ways, such as historical war, fictional war, civil war, world war, etc. War can also have various effects on the characters and the readers, such as courage, fear, heroism, violence, patriotism, trauma, etc. War can reveal or change the human nature and condition.
Social issues: Social issues are themes that deal with the problems or challenges faced by the society or a group of people. Social issues can include topics such as poverty, inequality, discrimination, corruption, human rights, democracy, etc. Social issues can also involve different perspectives or opinions on how to address or solve them. S